internet things (IoT)-based smart sensors are used to obtain the system measurements.

  1. H-infinity-based MG state estimation algorithm

  2. Kalman Filter based MG state estimation algorithm

  3. AI based Sensing Devices in MG

Sensing Requirements in MG: Power quality of power grid.

  1. Voltage needs to be regulated to ensure the appliances in each load are working in the proper state

  2. Frequency is used to monitor the power load in the transmission lines so that utility company knows whether to generate more or less energy

  3. Phase angle difference between buses is measured by PMU (cost is high ) to indicate the system stability and stress in advance.

  4. Furthermore, the distributed renewable energy can put back unpredictable amount of energy into MG

which makes the distributed power quality monitoring is even more important and challenging.

Deploy low cost device for power quality sensing in MG